Lesson 12 1-Casual Speech Past, 2-I like OO the best

Grammar Point 1-1 Past Tense, Positive, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the "-た(ta)" form of the verb to say

"I did __," "You did __," "He did __," etc.

 To get the "-た(ta)" form of the verb, we use the "-て(te)" form of the verb, but instead of "-te", we use "-ta" at the end of the verb.

Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see the ta form of the verb.)


する/suru = to do

te form→して(shite)

ta form→した(shita)

言う/iuto = to say

te form→言って(itte)

ta form→言った(itta)

食べる/taberu/ = to eat

te form→食べて(tabe te)

ta form→食べた(tabe ta)



Grammar Point 1-2 Past Tense, Interrogative, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the "-た(ta)" form of the verb to say

"Did you do __," "Did he do __," "Did she do __," etc.

 The sentence should be spoken with rising intonation, and sometimes the particle "の(no)" is attached to make it sound less abrupt. However, if you add the question particle "か(ka)" at the end of this structure, it may sound a little rude.

Grammar Point 1-3 Past Tense, Negative, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the

"-て(te)" form of the verb + "ない(nai)"

to say

"I haven't done __," "You haven't dome__," "He hasn't done __," etc.

Let's Try! (If you highlight the part "Answer" with your cursor below, you'll see the answer.)


Translate this into Japanese↓

A: Look, Mitch, did you eat the cake?

B: No, I didn't eat it. 

 But I had some coffee.

 Did you have some coffee?

A: Yeah, I had coffee.

B: What time did Mr Tanaka come?

A: He came at 9.

B: Hasn't Mr Suzuki shown up?

A: Mr Suzuki hasn't shown up.

A: Look, Mitch, did you eat the cake?

B: No, I didn't eat it. 

 But I had some coffee.

 Did you have some coffee?

A: Yeah, I had coffee.

B: What time did Mr Tanaka come?

A: He came at 9.

B: Hasn't Mr Suzuki shown up?

A: Mr Suzuki hasn't shown up.


A: ねえ、ミッチくん、ケーキ食べた?

B: うんう、食べてない。



A: うん、飲んだ。

B: 田中さん何時に来た?

A: 9時に来た。

B: 鈴木さんは来てない?

A: 鈴木さんは来てない。

A: Nee, Micchi kun, kēki tabeta?

B: Un uh, tabete nai. 

 Demo kōhī nonda.

 Kōhī nonda?

A: Un. nonda.

B: Tanaka san nanji ni kita?

A: ku ji ni kita.

B: Suzuki san wa kite nai?

A: Suzuki san wa kite nai.

Grammar Point 2 "I like OO the best."

 In Japanese, if you want to say 

"I like OO the best."

We often use the structure;


(watashi wa OO ga ichiban suki desu.)

※1番(ichi ban)=number one


    1. 私は一番好きです。---I like spring the best.
        (watashi wa haru ga ichi ban suki desu)

Months of the Year in Japanese;

January=1月(ichi gatsu)
February=2月(ni gatsu)
March=3月(san gatsu)
April=4月(shi gatsu)
May=5月(go gatsu)
June=6月(roku gatsu)
July=7月(shichi gatsu)
August=8月(hachi gatsu)
September=9月(ku gatsu)
October=10月(juu gatsu)
November=11月(juu ichi gatsu)
December=12月(juu ni gatsu)

Four Seasons in Japanese;





Additional Stuff

(verb in dictionary form)+予定です。---plan to do

 In Japanese, if you want to say 

"I'm planning to do __," "He's planning to do __," "She's planning to do __" etc,

we often use the structure;

"(verb in dictionary form)+予定です。"

(verb in dictionary form)+ yotei desu.

※予定(yotei)=a plan, plans

           e.g. 旅行する予定です。---I'm/He's/She's... planning to go on a trip.
             ( ryokou suru yotei desu )

Lesson summery video:

雑談(zatsudan) Small Talk "Personal Pronouns" in Japanese

 As you might have noticed, in Japanese, you don't always have to use personal pronouns (I, you, he, she etc) or even the subject of the sentence to make a grammatically complete sentence. So the listeners often have to guess who the subject of the sentence is from the context.

 But don't Japanese people sometimes have miscommunication due to the lack of the use of the subjects or the subject pronouns? As a matter of fact, yes, we do. Since a grammatically complete sentence in Japanese does not have to have the subject or the subject pronoun, it sometimes becomes quite vague who the subject of the sentence is.

 So sometimes people take advantage of this Japanese linguistic uniqueness and intentionally make ambiguous sentences to avoid arguments, personal criticisms, confrontations, embarrassment, or the responsibility. 

 Bit sneaky, aren't we? Well, but we can also use this linguistic characteristic to make jokes or tease people. For example, this is a true story happened to me yesterday;

 Yesterday, it was really hot during the day in Japan, but it rained later in the afternoon. So the temperature dropped in the evening. When the rain stopped, I went to the daycare centre to pick up my daughter. Then, I saw the mother of my daughter's friend, and she said to me;

Mother: 涼(すず)しくなりましたね。

    (Became cooler, right?)

Me: そうですね、夕立(ゆうだち)が降(ふ)ったおかげで。

    (Yes, thanks to the evening shower.)

Mother: ははは、いえいえ。頭(あたま)がですよ。

    (Hahaha, no, no. Head is.)

 Can you see what's going on here? When the mother said "涼(すず)しくなりましたね。," I thought she was talking about the weather. But she was actually talking about my head because I had cut my hair really short a few days earlier. I'm not sure if she was joking or it was simply miscommunication, but judging by the way she said, I guess she was joking.

 But there are, I guess, certain situations where you really need to clarify who the subject of the sentence is, right? So in the next small talk, let's talk about some common ways to clarify who the subject of the sentence is in Japanese. See you next time!


1. Please describe things you did and things you didn't, using "ta" form of the verb" and "te+nai" structure. It could be fictional, but let's try to make at least 5 sentences.


2. Please answer to the following questions using the casual speech style in Japanese. Your answers could be fictional.

 Q.1 今日(きょう)何時(なんじ)に起(お)きた?

        (kyou nanji ni okita?)

 Q.2 今日(きょう)朝ごはん食べた?

       (kyou asagohan tabeta?)

 Q.3 昨日(きのう)日本語(にほんご)勉強(べんきょう)した?

       (kinou nihongo benkyou shita?)

 Q.4 先週(せんしゅう)の日曜日(にちようび)に部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)した?

       (senshuu no nichi youbi ni heya o souji shita?)

 Q.5 先週(せんしゅう)の水曜日(すいようび)にサッカーした?

       (senshuu no sui youbi ni sakkā shita?)

3. If you are not quite familiar with the Japanese scripts, please watch the following two videos to practice 5 Kanji, Japanese Chinese characters. 

Please turn in your homework in the comment section below↓. We will go over it during the next lesson.

Words and phrases that

we (might) have used during the lesson:

-お花見(o hanami)---cherry blossom viewing
-料理をする(ryouri o suru)—to cook
-運動をする(undou o suru)—to do physical exercises
-掃除をする(souji o suru)—to do the cleaning
-冗談を言う(joudan o iu)---to tell jokes
-公園に行く(kouen ni iku)---to go to the park
-働く(hataraku)---to work
-歯を磨く(ha o migaku)---to brush one’s teeth
-怒る(okoru)---to get angry
-笑う(warau)---to smile, to laugh
-音楽を聞く(onngaku o kiku)---to listen to music
-驚く(odoroku)---to be surprised
-お茶を飲む(ocha o nomu)---to drink tea
-聞こえる(kikoeru)---to hear
-朝ごはんを食べる(asa gohan o taberu)---to eat breakfast
-テレビを見る(terebi o miru)---to watch TV
-映画を見る(eiga o miru)---to see a movie

-出張(しゅっちょう)をする=to go on a business trip

-残業(ざんぎょう)をする=to work overtime

-2週間(に しゅうかん)滞在(たいざい)する=to stay for two weeks

-家(いえ)でのんびりする=to relax at home

-部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)する=to clean the room

-旅行(りょこう)をする=to go on a trip

-日本(にほん)に留学(りゅうがく)する=to go to Japan for study

-昼寝(ひるね)をする=to take a nap

-読書(どくしょ)をする=to read a book

-買(か)い物(もの)をする=to do some shopping

-誰(だれ)かに電話(でんわ)をする=to telephone someone

-夕食(ゆうしょく)の準備(じゅんび)をする=to prepare dinner

-部屋(へや)を予約(よやく)する=to reserve a room

-京都(きょうと)を観光(かんこう)する=to sightsee in Kyoto

-勉強(べんきょう)する=to study

-デートをする=to go on a date

-宿題(しゅくだい)をする=to do one's homework

-犬(いぬ)の散歩(さんぽ)をする=to take a dog for a walk

-何(なに)かをする=to do something

-結婚(けっこん)をする=to get married


Anyone can feel free to leave a comment as long as you;


1. 批判はしない。

do not criticize other people or other people's comments

2. 特定の個人やグループを非難・攻撃しない。

do not defame or attack a particular person or group of people

3. 語学学習に関係ないことは書かない。

do not leave comments which have nothing to do with language-learning

4. 個人を特定できる情報(メールアドレス、住所、電話番号など)は書かない。

do not write personal information such as e-mail addresses, home addresses, or telephone numbers.

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