Lesson 12 1-Casual Speech Past, 2-I like OO the best


 Have you ever seen the film, Back to the Future?

←Yes, I'm talking about this movie. Back when I was growing up, that was one of my favourite movies. The main character, Martin accidentally goes back in time by driving the time machine that his friend, Doc, created. It was a classic film of all time to me!

 Well, in the last unit, we practiced how to use the casual language for present and future tenses. So today, let's talk about the past!

 Yes, let's master the casual speech style for the past events in Japanese. Also, let's practice how to say "I like __ the best." in Japanese too, so that you can talk to your friend about your favourite movies, foods, places to go, etc.

OK, let's get started!




Grammar Point 1-1 Past Tense, Positive, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the "-た(ta)" form of the verb to say

"I did __," "You did __," "He did __," etc.

 To get the "-た(ta)" form of the verb, we use the "-て(te)" form of the verb, but instead of "-te", we use "-ta" at the end of the verb.


Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see the ta form of the verb.)

する/suru = to do

te form→して(shite)

ta form→した(shita)

言う/iuto = to say

te form→言って(itte)

ta form→言った(itta)

食べる/taberu/ = to eat

te form→食べて(tabe te)

ta form→食べた(tabe ta)


irregular

来る/kuru→来て(kite)→来た(kita)

来て、見て、勝った!

(Veni, vidi, vici / I came, I saw, I conquered by Julius Caesar)


For rōmaji or hiragana, please use the online tool "RōmajiDesu." The link is here, the second one from the top of the right column. It's very useful.→


Grammar Point 1-2 Past Tense, Interrogative, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the "-た(ta)" form of the verb to say

"Did you do __," "Did he do __," "Did she do __," etc.

 The sentence should be spoken with rising intonation, and sometimes the particle "の(no)" is attached to make it sound less abrupt. However, if you add the question particle "か(ka)" at the end of this structure, it may sound a little rude.


Grammar Point 1-3 Past Tense, Negative, Casual

 In Japanese, in casual speech, we often use the

"-て(te)" form of the verb + "ない(nai)"

to say

"I haven't done __," "You haven't dome__," "He hasn't done __," etc.


Let's Try! (If you highlight the part "Answer" with your cursor below, you'll see the answer.)

Translate this into Japanese↓

A: Look, Mitch, did you eat the cake?

B: No, I didn't eat it. 

 But I had some coffee.

 Did you have some coffee?

A: Yeah, I had coffee.

B: What time did Mr Tanaka come?

A: He came at 9.

B: Hasn't Mr Suzuki shown up?

A: Mr Suzuki hasn't shown up.


A: Look, Mitch, did you eat the cake?

B: No, I didn't eat it. 

 But I had some coffee.

 Did you have some coffee?

A: Yeah, I had coffee.

B: What time did Mr Tanaka come?

A: He came at 9.

B: Hasn't Mr Suzuki shown up?

A: Mr Suzuki hasn't shown up.

Answer↓

A: ねえ、ミッチくん、ケーキ食べた?

B: うんう、食べてない。

 でもコーヒー飲んだ。

 コーヒー飲んだ?

A: うん、飲んだ。

B: 田中さん何時に来た?

A: 9時に来た。

B: 鈴木さんは来てない?

A: 鈴木さんは来てない。


A: Nee, Micchi kun, kēki tabeta?

B: Un uh, tabete nai. 

 Demo kōhī nonda.

 Kōhī nonda?

A: Un. nonda.

B: Tanaka san nanji ni kita?

A: ku ji ni kita.

B: Suzuki san wa kite nai?

A: Suzuki san wa kite nai.



Grammar Point 2 "I like OO the best."

 In Japanese, if you want to say 

"I like OO the best."

We often use the structure;

『私はOOが一番好きです。』

(watashi wa OO ga ichiban suki desu.)

※1番(ichi ban)=number one

eg.

    1. 私は一番好きです。---I like spring the best.
        (watashi wa haru ga ichi ban suki desu)

Months of the Year in Japanese;

January=1月(ichi gatsu)
February=2月(ni gatsu)
March=3月(san gatsu)
April=4月(shi gatsu)
May=5月(go gatsu)
June=6月(roku gatsu)
July=7月(shichi gatsu)
August=8月(hachi gatsu)
September=9月(ku gatsu)
October=10月(juu gatsu)
November=11月(juu ichi gatsu)
December=12月(juu ni gatsu)


Four Seasons in Japanese;

 Spring=春(haru)

 Summer=夏(natsu)

 Autumn=秋(aki)

 Winter=冬(huyu)



Additional Stuff

(verb in dictionary form)+予定です。---plan to do

 In Japanese, if you want to say 

"I'm planning to do __," "He's planning to do __," "She's planning to do __" etc,

we often use the structure;

"(verb in dictionary form)+予定です。"

(verb in dictionary form)+ yotei desu.

※予定(yotei)=a plan, plans

           e.g. 旅行する予定です。---I'm/He's/She's... planning to go on a trip.
             ( ryokou suru yotei desu )


Lesson summery video:




雑談(zatsudan) Small Talk "Personal Pronouns" in Japanese

 As you might have noticed, in Japanese, you don't always have to use personal pronouns (I, you, he, she etc) or even the subject of the sentence to make a grammatically complete sentence. So the listeners often have to guess who the subject of the sentence is from the context.

 But don't Japanese people sometimes have miscommunication due to the lack of the use of the subjects or the subject pronouns? As a matter of fact, yes, we do. Since a grammatically complete sentence in Japanese does not have to have the subject or the subject pronoun, it sometimes becomes quite vague who the subject of the sentence is.

 So sometimes people take advantage of this Japanese linguistic uniqueness and intentionally make ambiguous sentences to avoid arguments, personal criticisms, confrontations, embarrassment, or the responsibility. 

 Bit sneaky, aren't we? Well, but we can also use this linguistic characteristic to make jokes or tease people. For example, this is a true story happened to me yesterday;

 Yesterday, it was really hot during the day in Japan, but it rained later in the afternoon. So the temperature dropped in the evening. When the rain stopped, I went to the daycare centre to pick up my daughter. Then, I saw the mother of my daughter's friend, and she said to me;

Mother: 涼(すず)しくなりましたね。

    (Became cooler, right?)

Me: そうですね、夕立(ゆうだち)が降(ふ)ったおかげで。

    (Yes, thanks to the evening shower.)

Mother: ははは、いえいえ。頭(あたま)がですよ。

    (Hahaha, no, no. Head is.)

 Can you see what's going on here? When the mother said "涼(すず)しくなりましたね。," I thought she was talking about the weather. But she was actually talking about my head because I had cut my hair really short a few days earlier. I'm not sure if she was joking or it was simply miscommunication, but judging by the way she said, I guess she was joking.

 But there are, I guess, certain situations where you really need to clarify who the subject of the sentence is, right? So in the next small talk, let's talk about some common ways to clarify who the subject of the sentence is in Japanese. See you next time!



Homework: 

1. Please describe things you did and things you didn't, using "ta" form of the verb" and "te+nai" structure. It could be fictional, but let's try to make at least 5 sentences.

 

2. Please answer to the following questions using the casual speech style in Japanese. Your answers could be fictional.

 Q.1 今日(きょう)何時(なんじ)に起(お)きた?

        (kyou nanji ni okita?)

 Q.2 今日(きょう)朝ごはん食べた?

       (kyou asagohan tabeta?)

 Q.3 昨日(きのう)日本語(にほんご)勉強(べんきょう)した?

       (kinou nihongo benkyou shita?)

 Q.4 先週(せんしゅう)の日曜日(にちようび)に部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)した?

       (senshuu no nichi youbi ni heya o souji shita?)

 Q.5 先週(せんしゅう)の水曜日(すいようび)にサッカーした?

       (senshuu no sui youbi ni sakkā shita?)

3. If you are not quite familiar with the Japanese scripts, please watch the following two videos to practice 5 Kanji, Japanese Chinese characters. 

Please turn in your homework in the comment section below↓. We will go over it during the next lesson.



Words and phrases that

we (might) have used during the lesson:

-季節(kisetsu)---season
-お花見(o hanami)---cherry blossom viewing
-魚(sakana)---fish
-蜘蛛(kumo)---spider
-鳥(tori)---birds
-パンダ(panda)---panda
-猿(saru)---monkey
-馬(uma)---horse
-料理をする(ryouri o suru)—to cook
-運動をする(undou o suru)—to do physical exercises
-掃除をする(souji o suru)—to do the cleaning
-冗談を言う(joudan o iu)---to tell jokes
-公園に行く(kouen ni iku)---to go to the park
-働く(hataraku)---to work
-歯を磨く(ha o migaku)---to brush one’s teeth
-怒る(okoru)---to get angry
-笑う(warau)---to smile, to laugh
-音楽を聞く(onngaku o kiku)---to listen to music
-驚く(odoroku)---to be surprised
-お茶を飲む(ocha o nomu)---to drink tea
-聞こえる(kikoeru)---to hear
-朝ごはんを食べる(asa gohan o taberu)---to eat breakfast
-テレビを見る(terebi o miru)---to watch TV
-映画を見る(eiga o miru)---to see a movie

-出張(しゅっちょう)をする=to go on a business trip

-残業(ざんぎょう)をする=to work overtime

-2週間(に しゅうかん)滞在(たいざい)する=to stay for two weeks

-家(いえ)でのんびりする=to relax at home

-部屋(へや)を掃除(そうじ)する=to clean the room

-旅行(りょこう)をする=to go on a trip

-日本(にほん)に留学(りゅうがく)する=to go to Japan for study

-昼寝(ひるね)をする=to take a nap

-読書(どくしょ)をする=to read a book

-買(か)い物(もの)をする=to do some shopping

-誰(だれ)かに電話(でんわ)をする=to telephone someone

-夕食(ゆうしょく)の準備(じゅんび)をする=to prepare dinner

-部屋(へや)を予約(よやく)する=to reserve a room

-京都(きょうと)を観光(かんこう)する=to sightsee in Kyoto

-勉強(べんきょう)する=to study

-デートをする=to go on a date

-宿題(しゅくだい)をする=to do one's homework

-犬(いぬ)の散歩(さんぽ)をする=to take a dog for a walk

-何(なに)かをする=to do something

-結婚(けっこん)をする=to get married



以下のことを守っていただければ、どなたでもお気軽にコメントを残していただけます。

Anyone can feel free to leave a comment as long as you;

 

1. 批判はしない。

do not criticize other people or other people's comments

2. 特定の個人やグループを非難・攻撃しない。

do not defame or attack a particular person or group of people

3. 語学学習に関係ないことは書かない。

do not leave comments which have nothing to do with language-learning

4. 個人を特定できる情報(メールアドレス、住所、電話番号など)は書かない。

do not write personal information such as e-mail addresses, home addresses, or telephone numbers.

コメント: 2
  • #2

    サンドラ (木曜日, 01 11月 2018 21:19)

    冬眠する hibernar
    一日中 todo el día
    もしもし quién? (al teléfono)/cuando alguien está despistado
    正解です respuesta correcta
    さすがですね todo lo que dices suena bien...
    早く rápido
    もっと más
    やめてください detente por favor
    言い訳 excusa

    昨日私の好きなミステリー番組を見た。
    一昨日私は大きいビーチ行った。
    今朝私はファンタシー本を読書した。
    先週の月曜日に私は音楽を聞いた。
    先月私はメキシコに2週間滞在をした。

    今週私は日本語を勉強してない。
    昨日私は泳いでない。
    先週の私は歯を磨いてない。
    今日私はピアノを弾いてない。
    今朝私は朝ごはんを食べてない。

    Q.1 今日何時に起きた?
    今日私は9時半に起きた。

    Q.2 今日朝ごはん食べた?
    うんう。今日私は朝ごはん食べてない。

    Q.3 昨日日本語勉強した?
    うん。昨日私は2時間半ぐらい日本語を勉強した。

    Q.4 先週の日曜に部屋を掃除した?
    うんう。1ヶ月前私は部屋を掃除してない。

    Q.5 先週の水曜日にサッカーした?
    うん。先週の水曜日に私はサッカーした。

    またね!!!

  • #1

    J.G. (月曜日, 01 10月 2018 05:07)

    日本語の宿題その3

    1. 5 examples of verbs in the “ta“/”tenai” form.

    (i)今日私はベーフストロガノフ食べた。
    (ii)昨日私はモバゲをした。
    (iii)今日私はバスケしてない。
    (iv)今月私はパイソンの勉強始めた。
    (v)今年私はプールで泳いでない。

    2.Answering the questions:

    Q.1.私は今日の午前9時に起きた。
    Q.2.今日私は朝ごはん食べた。ダイエット中だからあまり美味しいくなかったけど。
    Q.3.昨日私は日本語を勉強した。日本語で書いた漫画を読んでみた。
    Q.4.いいえ、私は先週の日曜日に部屋を掃除してなかった。
    Q.5.いいえ、私は先週の水曜日にサッカーしてなかった。