Lesson 9 1-Time expressions, 2-There is/are OO.


Grammar Point 1 "Time Expressions in Japanese"


In Japanese, we have two systems of numbers;

1- Japanese-origin number,

2- Chinese-origin number.

 

 When we talk about time, we usually use;

Chinese-origin number + seconds, minutes, hours, o'clock etc.


1時(ichi ji)
2時(ni ji)
3時(san ji)
4時(yo ji) ※we don't say "yon ji" or "shi ji"
5時(go ji)
6時(roku ji)
7時(shichi ji) ※usually it's "shichi ji" although occasionally "nana ji"
8時(hachi ji)
9時(ku ji) ※We don't say "kyuu ji"
10時(juu ji)...

1時1分(ichi ji ip pun)
1時2分(ichi ji ni hun)
1時3分(ichi ji san pun)
1時4分(ichi ji yon pun / ichi ji yon hun)
1時5分(ichi ji go hun)
1時6分(ichi ji rop pun)
1時7分(ichi ji nana hun)
1時8分(ichi ji hap pun)
1時9分(ichi ji kyuu hun)
1時10分(ichi ji jyup pun)

2時半(ni ji han)=2時30分(ni ji san jup pun)
"at 3 o'clock" = 3時(san ji ni)
"from 1:00 til 3:00" = 1時から3時まで (ichi ji kara san ji made)
"9:00 am" = 午前9時 (gozen ku ji)
"5:00 pm" = 午後5時 (gogo go ji)

Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Mitch, what time do you usually get up?

B: I usually get up at 5:30.

A: Wow. That's quite early!

B: No, that's 5:30 pm.

A: Oh I see. Do you eat breakfast every day?

B: Yes. I eat breakfast from 6:05 to 7:20.

 

A: After that, what do you usually do?

B: I sometimes eat lunch around 7:30. Or I sometimes go back to sleep again around 8.

A: I see. Don't you eat dinner?

B: No, I don't. That's because I will not have enough time to sleep (if I eat dinner).

A→ミッチさんは普段何時に起きますか?

 

B→普段5時半に起きます。

A→へぇ!早いですね。

B→いいえ。午後5時半です。

A→なるほど。毎日朝ごはんを食べますか?

B→はい。朝ごはんは6時5分から7時20まで食べます。

A→その後は普段何をしますか?

B→時々、お昼ご飯を7時半ごろに食べます。または、時々8時ごろにまた寝ます。

A→なるほど。夕ご飯は食べませんか?

B→はい、夕ご飯は食べません。寝る時間が無くなりますので。

 


ひらがな バージョン:

A→みっちさん は ふだん なんじ に おきます か?

B→ふだん ごじ はん に おきます。

A→へぇ!はやい です ね。

B→いいえ。ごご ごじ はん です。

A→なるほど。まいにち あさごはん を たべます か?

B→はい。あさごはん は ろくじ ごふん から しちじ にじゅっぷん まで たべます。

A→その あと は ふだん なに を します か?

B→ときどき、おひるごはん を しちじ はん ごろ に たべます。または、ときどき はちじ ごろに また ねます。

A→なるほど。ゆうごはん は たべません か?

B→はい、ゆうごはん は たべません。ねる じかん が なくなりますので。

 



Grammar Point 2 "There is/are __." "I have __."


There is / are + people / animals.

In Japanese, when we want to express the idea of "There is/are __." or "I have __," "We have __" + people and animals as in;

"I have 25 brothers."

or

"We have a lot of pigs and donkeys in our family,"

we often use the following structure:

『(people/animals) + が/は います。』

(ga/wa imasu)

And the negative sentence will be:

 

『(people/animals) + が/は いません。』

(ga/wa imasen)


I have 10 Japanese friends:

 When we are talking about the number of people, we need to use the number + the counter for people. So, here is how to say;

 

-I have a Japanese friend.

-I have two Japanese friends.

-I have three Japanese friends.

-I have four Japanese friends.

-I have five Japanese friends.

-I have six Japanese friends.

-I have seven Japanese friends.

-I have eight Japanese friends.

-I have nine Japanese friends.

-I have ten Japanese friends.

-I have eleven Japanese friends.

-I have twelve Japanese friends.

-I have many Japanese friends.

(私には)日本人の友達が1人います。

日本人の友達が2人います。

日本人の友達が3人います。

日本人の友達が4人います。

日本人の友達が5人います。

日本人の友達が6人います。

日本人の友達が7人います。

日本人の友達が8人います。

日本人の友達が9人います。

日本人の友達が10人います。

日本人の友達が11人います。

日本人の友達が12人います。

日本人の友達がたくさんいます。


Romazised Version:

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga hitori imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga hutari imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga san nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga yo nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga go nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga roku nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga shichi nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga hachi nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga kyuu nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga juu nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga juu ichi nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga juu ni nin imasu.

-(watashi ni wa)nihonjin no tomodachi ga takusan imasu.


There are 10 cats:

 When we are talking about the number of animals, we need to use the number + the appropriate counter for that animal. What counter we use varies according to what animal we are talking about. But the most common one is _匹(hiki/piki/biki). This counter (匹) is used to count the number of small animals like hamsters, cats, dogs, fish, insects etc. So, here is how to say;

 

-There is a cat.

-There are two cats.

-There are three cats.

-There are four cats.

-There are five cats.

-There are six cats.

-There are seven cats.

-There are eight cats.

-There are nine cats.

-There are ten cats.

-There are eleven cats.

-There are twelve cats.

-There are many cats.

猫が1匹います。

猫が2匹います。

猫が3匹います。

猫が4匹います。

猫が5匹います。

猫が6匹います。

猫が7匹います。

猫が8匹います。

猫が9匹います。

猫が10匹います。

猫が11匹います。

猫が12匹います。

猫がたくさんいます。

 


Romazised Version:

-neko ga ip piki imasu.

-neko ga ni hiki imasu.

-neko ga san biki imasu.

-neko ga yon hiki imasu.

-neko ga go hiki imasu.

-neko ga rop piki imasu.

-neko ga shichi hiki / nana hiki imasu.

-neko ga hap piki imasu.

-neko ga kyuu hiki imasu.

-neko ga jup piki imasu.

-neko ga juu ip piki imasu.

-neko ga juu ni hiki imasu.

-neko ga takusan imasu.

 



There is / are + things / events / concepts / plants etc.

And when we want to express the idea of "There is/are __." or "I have __," "We have __" + things, events, concepts, plants, food, drinks, etc, as in;

"I have a lot of debts."

"We have a doghouse outside our house for you."

"You have fungi in your desk."

"I have an interrogation this afternoon."

we often use:

『(thing/events/concepts etc) + が/は あります。』

(ga/wa arimasu)

And the negative sentence will be:

 

『(thing/events/concepts etc) + が/は ありません。』

(ga/wa arimasen)



If you want to say "There aren't very many/much of ___." in Japanese, it will be:

 

    1. “There is/are not many + animals/people."
            OOあまりいません。(OO wa amari imasen.)
    2. “There is/are not many/much + objects/concepts/events."
            OOあまりありません。( OO wa amari arimasen.)
            ---There is/are not many/much OO.


Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Mitch, do you have siblings?

B: Yes. I have an older brother and an older sister. But I don't have any younger brother or a younger sister.

A: Do you have any pets?

B: Yes, we have three salmon.

A: Where is your house located.

B: It's located in Tokyo.

A: Are there any art museums in Tokyo?

B: Yes, we have many art museums in Tokyo.

A: Do you have shops in Tokyo?

B: We don't have many shops in Tokyo.

A: Do you have restaurants in Tokyo?

B: No, we don't. We don't have restaurants in Tokyo at all.

 

A→ミッチさんにはご兄弟がいますか?

B→はい。兄が一人と姉が一人います。でも、弟と妹はいません。

A→ペットはいますか?

B→はい、鮭が3匹います。

A→ミッチさんの家はどこにありますか?

B→東京にあります。

A→東京には美術館はありますか?

B→はい、東京には美術館がたくさんあります。

A→東京にはお店はありますか?

B→お店はあまりありませんね。

A→レストランはありますか?

B→いいえ、ありません。東京にはレストランは全然ありません。

 


ひらがな&カタカナ バージョン:

A→ミッチさん に は ごきょうだい が います か?

B→はい。あに が ひとり と あね が ひとり います。でも、おとうと と いもうと は いません。

A→ペット は いますか?

B→はい、さけ が さんびき います。

A→ミッチさん の いえ は どこ に ありますか?

B→とうきょう に あります。

A→とうきょう に は びじゅつかん は ありますか?

B→はい、とうきょう に は びじゅつかん が たくさんあります。

A→とうきょう に は おみせ は ありますか?

B→おみせ は あまり ありません ね。

A→レストラン は あります か?

B→いいえ、ありません。とうきょう に は レストラン は ぜんぜん ありません。

 



Lesson summery video:




Additional Stuff

Onomatopoeia in Japanese

Japanese people use a lot of onomatopoeic expressions, words and phrases that were created to imitate the sounds or image of animals, actions, emotions, etc, such as English "meow meow," "crack crack," "cuckoo" etc.

Here are some of common onomatopoeic expressions in Japanese;

-猫がニャンニャン鳴く---cats go “meow meow” 
(neko ga nyan nyan naku)
-羊がメーメー鳴く---sheep go “baa baa”
(hitsuji ga mē mē naku)
-犬がワンワン鳴く---dogs go “woof woof”
(inu ga wan wan naku)
-牛がモーモー鳴く---cows go “moo moo”
(ushi ga mō mō naku)
-豚がブーブー鳴く---pigs go “oink oink”
(buta ga bū bū naku)
-ニワトリがコケコッコーと鳴く---roosters go “cocka-a-doodle-doo”
(niwatori ga kokekokkō to naku)
-小鳥がチュンチュン鳴く---little birds go “squeak-squeak”
(kotori ga chun chun naku)
-ネズミがチューチュー鳴く---mice go “tweet tweet”
(nezumi ga chū chū naku)

雑談(zatsudan) Small Talk "Japanese Money"

 Last time, we talked about that a lot of Japanese people prefer to use cash to credit cards. So today, I would like to show you how the Japanese money looks like. First, let's start with Japanese coins.

 In Japan, besides commemorative coins, we have 6 types of coins; 1-yen-, 5-yen, 10-yen, 50-yen-, 100-yen, and 500-yen coins. 

 Heads or Tails?

 Under the Japanese law, there is no statement indicating which side of the coin is the face side or the reverse side. However, in general, many people consider the side with the value of the coin printed in Kanji to be the face side.


 And then, we have four types of bills; 1,000-yen, 2,000-yen, 5,000-yen, and 10,000-yen bills. As we have talked about in the last lesson, in Japan, the Japanese use cash a lot and if you live in Japan, you will see all these coins and bills almost everyday except the 2,000-yen bills. 

 Since the 2,000-yen bills were introduced to the general public relatively recently, in the year 2,000, people are still not used to using the 2,000-yen bills. I have seen it only once or twice in my life.


 At the moment, I don't have the 5,000-yen bills or 2,000-yen bills. So I will go to the bank and ask them for them. I am sure I can get 5,000 bills, but I am not sure if they have 2,000-yen bills or not. Let's see. 


 If you are from a foreign country and living in Japan for a while, from time to time, you will have occasions where you wish you had a gift or a souvenir from your country because in Japan, gift giving is really a common thing. 

 But don't worry even if you don't have good gifts from your country. There is a site that has a variety of items from all over the world. And you can buy imported goods from your country while you are in Japan and they will be great gifts for your in-laws, co-workers, bosses, friends, family, etc. 

 Do you need chocolate from your country? Maple syrup? Coffee? Cookies? Sauce? Wine? Dried fruits? You name it! This site really does have everything from all over the world.

 So if you already live in Japan or if you are planning to live in Japan, why not make use of this site! It's "JTBショッピング "



Words and phrases that

we (might) have used during the lesson:

-運動をする(undou o suru)---to do physical exercise

-ピアノの練習をする (piano no renshuu o suru)---to practice the piano
-部屋を掃除する (heya o souji suru)---to clean the room
-昼寝をする (hirune o suru)---to take a nap
-夕食の準備をする(yuushoku no junbi o suru)---to prepare dinner
-犬の散歩をする (inu no sanpo o suru)---to take the dog for a walk
-家に帰る (ie ni kaeru)---to go home
-お風呂に入る (ohuro ni hairu)---to take a bath
-歯を磨く (ha o migaku)---to brush one's teeth
-寝る (neru)---to sleep, to go to bed
-起きる (okiru)---to get up
-朝ごはんを食べる (asa gohan o taberu)---to eat breakfast
-シャワーを浴びる (shawā o abiru)---to take a shower


Homework: 

1. Please tell me what your typical day is like using the time expressions that we have learnt in this lesson. Please write at least 10 sentences.

2. Please describe your family using "__がいます。(__ga imasu)" and "__があります(ga arimasu)." Please create at least 5 sentences for each. (it could be your imaginary family)

3. If you are not quite familiar with the Japanese scripts, please watch the following two videos to practice 8 Katakana, Japanese phonetic scripts. 

Please turn in your homework in the comment section below↓. We will go over it during the next lesson.


以下のことを守っていただければ、どなたでもお気軽にコメントを残していただけます。

Anyone can feel free to leave a comment as long as you;

 

1. 批判はしない。

do not criticize other people or other people's comments

2. 特定の個人やグループを非難・攻撃しない。

do not defame or attack a particular person or group of people

3. 語学学習に関係ないことは書かない。

do not leave comments which have nothing to do with language-learning

4. 個人を特定できる情報(メールアドレス、住所、電話番号など)は書かない。

do not write personal information such as e-mail addresses, home addresses, or telephone numbers.



コメント: 1
  • #1

    ジーナ (水曜日, 27 6月 2018 16:27)

    -OOが いち ばん すき です。= _______is/ are my favourite.
    -わたし の がっこう には= in my school
    -デスク の うえ には= on my desk
    -ときどき= sometimes
    -わたし の いえ には= in my house

    わたしのかぞくで多い人はいます。八りょうしんはいます。二十きょうだいはいます。十五にいさんと十______はいます。しまいではいません。
    わたしのいえにはさらに三十五ボールペンはあります、四レントゲン、十一れいぞーこはあります。でんわではありません。ときどき多いバナナはあります。