Lesson 19 It was cold. (was/were in Japanese)

Grammar Point 1-1 『__ was/were + "i-adjectives"』


 If we want to say "I was __." "You were __." "It was __" etc with i-adjectives such as "寒(さむ)い=cold," "暑(あつ)い=hot" "可愛(かわい)い=cute" etc, the grammatical structure will be;

i-adjective without “i"+ かった です
        (i-adjective without “i"+ katta desu)

例:寒(さむ)い=cold

  samu i

 →寒(さむ) + かった  です。(It was cold.)

  samu + katta desu


Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Was Mitch's house stinky? (stinky, to smell bad=臭い/kusai)

 →ミッチさんの家(いえ)は臭(くさ)かったですか?

B: Yes, it was stinky. And Mitch was very dirty. (dirty=汚い/kitanai) 

 →はい。臭(くさ)かったです。それからミッチさんはとても汚(きたな)かったです。



Grammar Point 1-2 『__ was/were NOT + "i-adjectives"』


 If we want to say "I was NOT __." "You were NOT __." "It was NOT __" etc with i-adjectives such as "寒(さむ)い=cold," "暑(あつ)い=hot" "可愛(かわい)い=cute" etc, the grammatical structure will be;

i-adjective without “i"+ く ありません でした
        (i-adjective without “i"+ ku arimasen deshita.)

例:寒(さむ)い=cold

  samu i

 →寒(さむ) + くありません でした。(It was NOT cold.)

  samu + ku arimasen deshita 


Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Wasn't Mitch's house big? (big=大きい/ookii)

 →ミッチさんの家(いえ)は大(おお)きくありませんでしたか?

B: No, it was not big. And Mitch was not friendly. (friendly=優しい/yasashii) 

 →はい。大(おお)きくありませんでした。。それからミッチさんは優(やさ)しくありませんでした。



Grammar Point 1-3 『__ was/were + "na-adjectives"』


 To say "I was __." "You were __." "It was __"

na-adjective without “na" + でした
        (na-adjective without “na" + deshita)
例: 元気(げんき)な=fine, energetic
  genki na
  →元気 + でした。—I/You/He/She... was energetic.
       (genki + deshita)

Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Was Mitch's house strange? (strange=変な/henna)

 →ミッチさんの家(いえ)は変(へん)でしたか?

B: Yes, it was strange. And Mitch was also strange.

 →はい。変でした。それからミッチさんも変(へん)でした。



Grammar Point 1-4 

『__ was/were NOT + "na-adjectives"』

 To say "I was NOT __." "You were NOT __." "It was NOT __"

na-adjective without “na" + では ありません でした
        (na-adjective without “na" + dewa arimasen deshita)
例: 元気(げんき)な=fine, energetic
  genki na
  →元気 + では ありません でした。—I/You/He/She... was NOT energetic.
       (genki + dewa arimasen deshita)

Let's Try! (If you highlight the part next to "→" with your cursor, you'll see an example answer.)

A: Wasn't Mitch's house nice? (nice=素敵な/sutekina)

 →ミッチさんの家(いえ)は素敵(すてき)ではありませんでしたか?

B: No, it was not nice. And Mitch was not kind. (kind=親切な/shinsetsuna)

 →はい。素敵(すてき)ではありませんでした。それからミッチさんは親切(しんせつ)ではありませんでした。



Grammar Point 2-1 "Because it is + adjectives"


 In Japanese, if we want to say "Because OO is/am/are + adjective," we often use the following rules;

Grammar Point: 

 i-adjective / na-adjective + ので

           e.g. 寒い ので…— Because it is cold...
                  (samu-i node)
           e.g. 元気な ので… —Because I/you/he/she... is energetic…
                    (genki-na node)

     Because it is + noun→ noun + + ので...

           e.g. 私はパイトッロ ので… —Because I am a pilot…
                    (watashi wa pairotto nanode)


Grammar Point 2-2 "Because it is + NOT adjectives"


 And if we want to say "Because OO is/am/are NOT + adjective," we often use the following rules;

Grammar Point: 

 i-adjective without “i"+ + ない+ ので...

        (i-adjective without “i"+ ku nainode...)
           e.g. 寒く ない ので… —Because it is NOT cold...
                  (samu katta desu)

 na-adjective without “na"+ では/じゃ+ ない + ので...

        (na-adjective without “na"+ dewa/ja nai node...)
           e.g. 元気では/じゃ ない ので—Because OO was/were NOT energetic
                    (genki dewa/ja nai node...)

    Because it is NOT + noun→ noun + dewa/ja nai + node...)

           e.g. 私はパイトッロ では/じゃ ない ので—Because I am NOT a pilot...
                    (watashi wa pairotto dewa/ja nainode...)


Grammar Point 2-3 "Because it WAS + adjectives"


 In Japanese, if we want to say "Because OO was/were + adjective," we often use the following rules;

Grammar Point: 

 i-adjective without “i"+ かった + ので...

        (i-adjective without “i"+ katta + node...)
           e.g. 寒 かった ので… —Because it was cold...
                  (samu katta node...)

 na-adjective without “na"+ だった + ので...

        (na-adjective without “na"+ datta + node...)
           e.g. 元気 だった ので… —Because I/you/he/she... was energetic…
                    (genki datta node)

    Because OO was/were  + noun→ noun + だった+ ので...

           e.g. 私はパイトッロ だった ので… —Because I was a pilot…
                    (watashi wa pairotto datta node)


Grammar Point 2-4 "Because it was NOT + adjectives"


 In Japanese, if we want to say "Because OO was/were NOT + adjective," we often use the following rules;

Grammar Point: 

 i-adjective without “i"+ なかった + ので...

        (i-adjective without “i"+ ku nakatta + node...)
           e.g. 寒 く なかった ので… —Because it was NOT cold...
                  (samu ku nakatta node...)

 na-adjective without “na"+ では/じゃ なかった + ので...

        (na-adjective without “na"+ dewa/ja nakatta + node...)
           e.g. 元気 では/じゃ なかった ので… —Because I/you/he/she... was NOT energetic…
                    (genki dewa/ja nakatta node)

   +α 『Because OO was/were NOT + noun』

                     → noun + では/じゃ なかった + ので...

        (noundewa/ja nakatta + node...)
           e.g. 私はパイロット では/じゃ なかった ので… 
     —Because I was NOT a pilot…
                    (watashi wa pairotto dewa/ja nakatta node)


Lesson summery video: (will be available soon)




雑談(zatsudan) Small Talk topic "Japanese Table Manners 1"

 When you eat, in your country, what do you use to eat with? With a Spoon or two? Fork? Chopsticks? Hands? Feet? Well, probably not with your feet, but table manners can greatly vary from country to country. So even if you are tying to be polite at a dinner table, you might sometimes offend people around you unintentionally. So today, let's talk a bit of the Japanese table manners.

 There are a quite number of dos and don'ts in the Japanese table manners, but today, we will particularly talk about how to start eating and how to finish eating in Japan.

 In Japan, if you are eating with other people, please make sure that everyone who you are eating with is also ready to eat before you start eating. So if you are at the dinner table and see food on it and some other people are not ready to eat yet, you also need to make sure you are not drooling like a dog.

 When finally, everybody is ready to eat, we usually say a magic word 『いただきます(itadaki masu)』when we start eating. By the way, you can listen to me saying this word in the video above, as well as 『ごちそうさまでした(gochisou sama deshita)』, whose meaning I will explain later in this article.

 The phrase 『いただきます。』is a masu form of the verb 『いただく』. It means something like "to receive something gratefully." So we say this phrase to appreciate Mother Nature, all the effort spent in order for us to eat, and the animals and vegetables who sacrificed their lives for us.

 I would say that this phrase has nothing to do with religions. So even if you are a pious worshiper of God or Gods or a devout atheist, there is no need for you to worry about betraying your religious beliefs.

 And when finish eating, the Japanese usually say 『ご馳走様でした(gochisou sama deshita)』or 『ご馳走様(gochisou sama)』. 『ご馳走(gochisou)』 means "delicacy" or "feast." The word 『様(sama)』 is an honorific title usually used toward people of a high rank or something divine, and the part 『でした(deshita)』is more like English "it was." So it can roughly be translated into English as "It was a great meal."

 Some people might put their hands together like my drawing below, but you don't have to. As a matter of fact, no one in my family does, although a lot of other people do.

 Anyway, these two phrases 『いただきます(itadakimasu)。』 and 『ご馳走様でした(gochisou sama deshita)。』 are extremely important when eating in Japan, so please make sure to store them in your Japanese-language arsenal.

(In the video above, there is one more phrase 『おかわりをお願いします。』 It means "Refill, please.")



Useful Tip:

 Do you think watching a lot of TV is a good way to learn a new language? Oh yes, it certainly is a good way to learn a new language. I mean not only regular TV programmes, but also those internet video broadcasting programmes like YouTube, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and Hulu

 If you live in Japan, I highly recommend Hulu because it has so many channels and interesting shows from Japan, as well as those from outside Japan. The site has the English version, so it's even easier to get started. 

 If you visit Hulu site and scroll all the way down to the bottom of the page, you will see the word "ENGLISH." If you click that, the site will open the English site.

 Fuji TV station also has an Internet broadcasting service. Fuji TV is one of the most popular TV stations in Japan, and with this service, you can see many currently-ppopular TV shows that are only available on Fuji TV network. They have a free 31-day-trial campaign right now. So why not get the most of it while it offers a free trial campaign! It's called FOD Premium.

 Another good way to learn Japanese is read books in Japanese, especially comic books. They have a lot of pictures and they have stories, too. They are fun and easy to read. You learn authentic Japanese words and phrases in context so they will stay in your memory longer. You can the culture and trends, too! 

 If you are interested in reading manga, Japanese comic books, I highly recommend イーブックイニシアティブジャパン eBookJapan . It is one of the biggest Japanese online e-book stores and they have all the current popular Japanese anime. They have many free e-books, too, to try out. 

 Oh, and one more thing. Audiobooks are also very powerful when it comes to learning foreign languages. So let me give you a link to one of the most popular Japanese audiobook site. It's オーディオブック聴き放題なら - audiobook.jp .

 Many of the sites I mentioned above offer free samples and free trials. I hope you find this information useful and make use of this modern technology to boost up your language skills!



Homework: 

1. Please tell me six things about you or your family when you were younger using "OO was/were + adjective" and "OO was/were NOT + adjective"

2. Answer the following questions using "Because __" structures.

 For example,

 Q. Can you help me?

 Your answer might be →眠(ねむ)いので無理(むり)です。

  (Because I'm sleepy, it is not possible.)  etc.

 Q.1
  ミッチ: お金(かね)をください。
  Your response:  __なので、無理です。
  (Because OO is __, it is not possible.)
 Q.2
  ミッチ: お金(かね)をください。
  Your response:  __ないので、無理です。
  (Because OO is not __, it is not possible.)
 Q.3
  ミッチ: なんでお金をくれなかったのですか?
  (Why didn't you give me money?)
  Your response: __だったので、無理でした。
  (Because OO was/were __, it was not possible.)
 Q.4
  ミッチ: なんでお金をくれなかったのですか?
  (Why didn't you give me money?)
  Your response: __では/は なかったので、無理でした。
  (Because OO was/were NOT __, it was not possible.)

3. If you are not quite familiar with the Japanese scripts, please watch the following two videos to practice 5 Kanji, Japanese Chinese characters. 

Please turn in your homework in the comment section below↓. We will go over it during the next lesson.


To view the translation of words and phrases in English and the answers to the kanji exercise in the video, please use the cursor to highlight here↓ 

Q.1 千(ち)よ子(こ)(女の子のなまえ)---Chiyoko(a girl's name)

Q.2 左右(さゆう)をみる---look to the left and the right

Q.3 百円(ひゃくえん)---100 yen

Q.4 右足(みぎあし)---right leg, right foot

Q.5 ともだち 三百人(さんびゃくにん)---300 friends

Q.6 左(さ)せつ する(左に まがる こと)---turn left

Q.7 先生(せんせい)---teacher, doctor(physician)

Q.8 左手(ひだりて)---left hand, left arm

Q.9 千円(せんえん)さつ---one thousand bill

Q.10 右(う)せつする(右に まがる こと)---turn right

Q.11 つま先(さき)---the tip of a toe



Words and phrases that

we (might) have used during the lesson:



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Anyone can feel free to leave a comment as long as you;

 

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do not criticize other people or other people's comments

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do not defame or attack a particular person or group of people

3. 語学学習に関係ないことは書かない。

do not leave comments which have nothing to do with language-learning

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do not write personal information such as e-mail addresses, home addresses, or telephone numbers.

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